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Health Education and Behavior

BAILAMOS With mHealth Technology! Improving Physical Activity and Well-Being in Middle-Aged and Older Latinxs: A Pre–Post Feasibility Study
1 week 4 days ago
Health Education & Behavior, Volume 48, Issue 5, Page 575-583, October 2021.
Older Latinxs engage in lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (PA) compared with non-Latinx Whites. Latin dance is a culturally relevant type of leisure-time PA that may engage older Latinx populations, particularly when coupled with mobile health technologies (mHealth). This single group pre–post feasibility study described the PA and health outcomes of middle-aged and older Latinxs participating in BAILA TECH—an intervention that combines the BAILAMOS Latin dance program with mHealth (Fitbit Charge 2, Fitbit app, and motivational text messages). Participants (n = 20, Mage = 67 ± 7.1, female n = 15, 75%) were enrolled in the 16-week BAILA TECH intervention held twice a week. Participants received a Fitbit Charge 2 to assess PA at baseline, during the intervention, and postintervention. An mHealth platform (iCardia) collected Fitbit data and staff delivered weekly motivational and informational text messages. Participants completed questionnaires about PA, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, social support, quality of life, and cognitive function at baseline and postintervention. Paired t tests evaluated change in pre–post measures. There was a significant increase in device-assessed moderate-to-vigorous PA (d = 0.69), self-reported light-leisure (d = 1.91) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (d = 1.05), moderate-to-vigorous leisure PA (d = 1.55), predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (d = 1.10), and PA social support (d = 0.81 [family]; d = 0.95 [friends]) from baseline to postintervention. Although nonsignificant, there was a small effect on physical health–related quality of life (d = 0.32) and executive function (d = 0.29). These data describe an increase in PA levels and health-related outcomes of middle-aged and older Latinxs from participation in an mHealth-infused Latin dance intervention. An adequately powered trial is necessary to establish efficacy.
Susan Aguiñaga
Examining Empowerment Interventions With Families and Preschool Children: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
1 week 6 days ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
Empowerment is a core construct in health behavior and an emerging trend in pediatrics. Although it has been suggested as an approach that may promote the person’s participation in health care decisions and positive outcomes, little is known about the nature and effectiveness of interventions to support empowerment in families and preschool-age children. The aim of this review is to identify, appraise, and synthesize the evidence on health interventions explicitly using empowerment as an orienting concept with families and their preschool-age children. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) through systematic searches of eight databases for articles published between 1986 and January 2019 and included RCTs that addressed empowerment as a health intervention approach or outcome and that studied families with 3- to 5-year-old children. The application of empowerment theory, the family and child involvement, and the use of behavior change techniques (BCTs) were assessed through appropriate frameworks. Ten interventions were identified, and 50% of them showed positive outcomes. Most studies claimed a theoretical base. However, the studies provided limited details on theory application in intervention planning, implementation, and evaluation, and the children’s involvement in the interventions was generally scarce. The most commonly applied BCT was “instruction in how to perform the behavior.” We identified 16 potentially effective BCTs. The evidence was not sufficiently robust to determine the effectiveness of empowerment interventions with families and preschool-age children. Additional high-quality studies are needed to produce clearer conclusions. Our results are useful for the design and evaluation of future interventions.
Sónia Borges Rodrigues
The Acceptability and Effectiveness of Videos Promoting Smoking Cessation Among Australians Experiencing Mental Illness
2 weeks 3 days ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
There are high rates of tobacco smoking among people who experience mental illness (MI). While videos are an effective method of disseminating health-related information, there is limited research investigating the effectiveness of video-delivered education promoting smoking cessation among people living with MI. This formative study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of targeted video resources providing smoking cessation information and advice to smokers with MI. This study used a mixed-method design; 29 Australian smokers living with MI completed a preinterview survey including 12 questions assessing knowledge about smoking cessation, watched six videos developed by the research team providing information about smoking cessation, took part in semistructured interviews about the videos’ quality, content, and format, and then completed a postinterview survey identical to the preinterview survey to assess changes in smoking cessation-related knowledge. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to calculate changes in cessation-related knowledge, and thematic analysis was used to identify common themes in qualitative data. We found a statistically significant increase in participants’ smoking cessation-related knowledge scores after watching the videos. Participants indicated an overall high level of acceptability of the videos’ quality, content, and format, and findings from the semistructured interviews reflected these favorable views. This study’s findings provide a new understanding of the effectiveness and acceptability of customized video-based education to promote smoking cessation among people living with MI, and can be used to inform the content and focus of video resources aimed at increasing knowledge about smoking cessation for people experiencing MI.
Ratika Sharma-Kumar
Factors Associated With the Intention to Begin Physical Activity Among Inactive Middle-Aged and Older Adults
1 month ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
Factors that affect physical activity (PA) behavior change are well established. Behavioral intention is a strong psychological predictor of behavior; however, there is less research on the factors that affect the intention to increase PA participation specifically, especially among adults in mid and later life who are inactive. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which was informed by the transtheoretical model (TTM), this study investigated the relationships between a range of demographic and biopsychosocial factors with the intention to become physically active among 1,159 inactive adults aged 40 years and older. Comparisons were made between participants reporting the intention to begin PA in the next 30 days (TTM Preparation; n = 610), 6 months (TTM Contemplation; n = 216), or not at all (TTM Precontemplation; n = 333). First, multinomial logistic regression identified age, sex, ethnicity, education, restriction of activities, self-perceived health, and community belonging as factors significantly associated with 30-day PA intention, while age and ethnicity were significantly associated with 6-month PA intention, compared with those reporting no intention. Second, binary logistic regression revealed that education was the only factor that differentially associated with intention timeframe as participants with lower levels of education were less likely to report PA intention in 30 days compared with 6 months. Findings demonstrate key demographic, biopsychosocial, and temporal factors that warrant consideration for tailored PA promotion programs that aim to effectively address the constraints and barriers that negatively influence PA intention among middle-aged and older adults.
Ariane S. Massie
Personal Freedom and Social Responsibility in Slowing the Spread of COVID-19: A Rapid Qualitative Study
1 month ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
This rapid qualitative exploratory study focused on perceptions of adopting risk-reduction measures, such as face masks, on campuses within institutions of higher education in the United States. It was intended to identify safety measures to reduce virus spread and develop community-informed public health messaging to promote COVID-19 risk-reduction strategies within campus communities. This study was approved by the institutional review board where the study took place. A total of 113 stakeholders, including students, staff, and faculty attended one of nine focus groups. We use the socioecological model to illustrate the use of COVID-19 public health measures in private and public spaces and how macro-level processes, specifically sociocultural values of personal freedom and social responsibility shape the meaning and interpretation of COVID-19 public health measures. A rapid qualitative data analysis was conducted. This analysis was characterized by three steps: (1) transcription of the interviews, (2) completion of a summary template per focus group analysis (data reduction strategy), and (3) matrix analyses involving a cross-case analysis of the nine focus groups conducted. Based on study findings, we offer community-centered recommendations for safe and healthy reopening of large public research institutions. This article contributes to the foundation of scientific literature that qualitatively describes evidence-based strategies for safe reopening of places of education and employment in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Evelyn Vázquez
Impact of Local Flavored Tobacco Sales Restrictions on Policy-Related Attitudes and Tobacco Product Access
1 month 1 week ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundAs of September 2020, more than 300 state and local jurisdictions restrict the sales of flavored tobacco, with some including menthol.AimsTo evaluate the impact of local ordinances restricting the sale of flavored tobacco, we surveyed Californians regarding policy support and perceived access to flavored tobacco.MethodsIn 2019, we conducted an online survey of 3,075 California youth and young adults recruited via social media, about half of whom lived in a policy jurisdiction. Logistic regressions assessed differences on propensity score–weighted outcomes, policy support, and perceived access.ResultsMost respondents indicated agreement with almost all policy support statements. Although policy respondents were less likely than rest-of-California respondents to report perceived difficulty in buying flavored cigars, flavored vape users in policy jurisdictions were more likely than those in the rest of California to report perceived difficulty in buying flavored e-liquid. Regardless of jurisdiction, certain priority subgroups were significantly more likely to report perceived difficulty in accessing flavored cigars, flavored vaping products, flavored e-liquid, and menthol cigarettes.DiscussionWith some exceptions, these findings demonstrate that among vape users in policy jurisdictions and priority subgroups, there is a higher likelihood of reporting perceived difficulty to access flavored tobacco products.ConclusionsFindings might be an early indication of shifts in social norms about flavored tobacco products in California, which could gain traction as local sales restriction ordinances proliferate throughout the state and a statewide flavored-tobacco sales restriction goes into effect.
Ashley L. Feld
The Association Between Fatalism and Mammography Use in Korean American Immigrant Women
1 month 1 week ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
Fatalism is reported as a salient cultural belief that influences cancer screening disparities in racial and ethnic minority groups. Previous studies provide a range of measures and descriptions of cancer fatalism, but no studies to our knowledge have analyzed how fatalistic views cluster together within subgroups to form distinct profiles, and how these profiles can be predicted. This study identified subgroups of Korean American immigrants with similar fatalistic beliefs toward cancer and examined the influence of fatalism, health belief variables, and health literacy on mammography use. A cross-sectional survey design was used to obtain a convenience sample of 240 Korean American immigrant women in Los Angeles, California. Latent class analysis was used to identify unobserved subgroups of fatalism. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to identify predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent mammography use. The latent class analysis model identified three cancer fatalism subgroups: high fatalism (17.8%), moderate fatalism (36.7%), and low fatalism (45.5%). Women in the high fatalism subgroup were more likely to have had a mammogram within the past 2 years than women in the low fatalism subgroup. Regression analysis revealed three facilitators of recent mammogram use: level of fatalism, perceived barriers to mammogram, and family history of cancer. Although cultural beliefs can have a powerful influence on health-seeking behavior, it is important to weigh individual and contextual factors that may weaken or mediate the relationship between fatalism and engaging in preventive care such as having a mammogram.
Mi Hwa Lee
Tailoring First Aid Courses to Older Adults Participants
1 month 3 weeks ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
Relevant organizations emphasize the importance of first aid (FA) for older adults due to the increased risk of injuries and sudden illnesses in old age. Even though FA training guidelines have been developed, no program for an FA course adapted for the older adults has been formally adopted in Europe. This study’s objective is to identify older adults’ needs, beliefs, desires, advantages, and possible limitations in connection with FA. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with 22 laypersons and retired health professionals older than 60 years old. The qualitative content analysis indicated that the major themes elicited by the older adults are motivation to participate in the FA training, older adults’ specific features as a resource or obstacle for participating in FA training, general suggestions, and content suggestions for FA training. Older adults are very differently motivated to participate in FA training due to the heterogeneity of their psychophysical abilities. They need and want to obtain additional knowledge from the field of FA and health protection for which any psychophysical limitations are not as relevant as when learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation. They want to learn how to recognize emergency situations and more about calling emergency services with the use of modern technology. In addition to cardiopulmonary resuscitation without rescue breaths, they also want to learn about topics related to the treatment of injuries. Those who had practiced FA in their work–life think that they can be a good source to transfer their knowledge to persons from their generation. While planning an FA training course, it has to be taken into consideration that older adults want a short course, adjusted to their varied psychophysical abilities. Due to the wide array of contents they want to learn, it would be reasonable to prepare a selection of different programs for short training courses.
Eva Dolenc
Coaction of Obesity Treatment–Associated Changes in Physical Activity and Emotional Eating: Mediation by Body Satisfaction
2 months ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundResearch on coaction suggests improvements in physical activity and emotional eating will occur in a reciprocal manner.AimsTo determine if changes in body satisfaction mediate relations between physical activity and emotional eating changes and if age affects degree of change in those variables.MethodGroups of early adult (n = 43) and middle-age (n = 52) women participants of a community-based obesity treatment were assessed on behavioral and psychological variables over 3 and 6 months.ResultsImprovements in physical activity, anxiety-related emotional eating, body satisfaction, anxiety, and exercise self-efficacy were significant overall. Early adults demonstrated greater reductions in emotional eating. Physical activity increase over 3 months significantly predicted 6-month reduction in emotional eating but not vice versa. Body satisfaction change significantly mediated the physical activity–emotional eating relationships. Changes in anxiety and exercise self-efficacy moderated activity → emotional eating and body satisfaction → physical activity relationships, respectively.ConclusionFindings can inform both theory and behavioral obesity interventions.
James J. Annesi
Measuring Early Childhood Educators’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior–Related Self-Efficacy: A Systematic Review of Tools
2 months 1 week ago
Health Education & Behavior, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 455-467, August 2021.
Early childhood educators’ (ECEs) self-efficacy is often predictive of their ability and likelihood of promoting healthy activity behaviors in childcare settings. To date, ECEs’ physical activity and sedentary behavior–related self-efficacy has been measured in a variety of ways in childcare-based research, creating difficulty when comparing across studies. To identify the different approaches ECEs’ self-efficacy is assessed, the current study aimed to compare all existing tools that quantitatively measure physical activity and sedentary behavior–related self-efficacy of pre- and in-service ECEs. Seven online databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed, English-written journal articles. Articles were deemed eligible if they employed a tool which measured physical activity and/or sedentary behavior–related self-efficacy of pre- or in-service ECEs. A total of 16 studies were included in this review, and 13 unique tools were identified. All tools measured task self-efficacy (n = 13), while only 1 tool measured barrier self-efficacy, and approximately half of the tools (n = 7; 54%) reported on the validity and reliability. Great variability existed among the self-efficacy items included in the tools; however, common constructs included: teaching/leading physical activity, fundamental movement skill development, and physical activity programming. Very few tools mentioned sedentary behavior (n = 2) and outdoor/risky play (n = 2). Given the low number of studies that tested validity and reliability of their self-efficacy tools, the lack of consideration for barrier self-efficacy, and the paucity of tools that fully encompassed physical activity, sedentary behavior, and outdoor play considerations for ECEs, future research is needed to validate a new, reliable tool.
Monika Szpunar
Including Medical Footage and Emotional Content in Organ Donation Educational Videos for Latinx Viewers
2 months 1 week ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
We assessed whether videos with medical footage of organ preservation and transplantation plus sad, unresolved, or uplifting stories differentially affect deceased organ donor registration among clients in Latinx-owned barbershops and beauty salons. In a 2 × 3 randomized controlled trial, participants (N = 1,696, mean age 33 years, 67% female) viewed one of six videos. The control portrayed a mother who received a kidney (uplifting), excluding medical footage. Experimental videos included medical footage and/or showed a mother waiting (unresolved) or sisters mourning their brother’s death (sad). Regression models assessed relative impact of medical footage and storylines on: (1) registry enrollment, (2) donation willingness stage of change, and (3) emotions. Randomization yielded approximately equal groups relative to age, sex, education, religion, nativity, baseline organ donation willingness, beliefs, and emotions. Overall, 14.8% of participants registered. Neither medical footage, sad, nor unresolved stories differentially affected registration and changes in organ donation willingness. Sad and unresolved stories increased sadness and decreased positive affect by ~0.1 logits compared with the uplifting story. Educational videos about organ donation which excluded or included medical footage and varying emotional valence of stories induced emotions marginally but did not affect viewers’ registration decisions differently. Heterogeneity of responses within video groups might explain the attenuated impact of including medical footage and varying emotional content. In future work, we will report qualitative reasons for participants’ registration decisions by analyzing the free text responses from the randomized trial and data from semistructured interviews that were conducted with a subset of participants.
Stephen P. Wall
Prevalence and Correlates of Observed Sun Protection Behaviors Across Different Public Outdoor Settings in Melbourne, Australia
2 months 2 weeks ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
Skin cancer prevention efforts in Australia have increasingly incorporated a focus on protection during incidental sun exposure. This complements the long-present messages promoting protection in high-risk settings and avoidance of acute intense bouts of sun exposure. Data from two waves of a cross-sectional direct observational survey was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of N = 12,083 adolescents’ and adults’ sun protection behavior (arm and leg cover, hat, sunglasses, and shade cover). Individuals were observed in public outdoor settings in Melbourne, Australia during peak ultraviolet (UV) times (11 a.m.–3 p.m.) on summer weekends. Settings included pools and beaches, parks and gardens, and for the first time in 2018, outdoor streets and cafés which may capture more incidental forms of sun exposure and represent another public setting where Australians commonly spend time outdoors. Females and older adults were consistently better protected than males and adolescents. Physical activity was strongly associated with low shade cover across settings. Weather was more strongly associated with sun protection at outdoor streets/cafes and parks/gardens than at pools/beaches but use of observed sun protection (particularly arm cover and covering hat) was low across settings. Continued public education about UV risk and its relation to weather and the seasons is needed to promote the routine use of multiple forms of sun protection during outdoor activities in peak UV times, especially among males and adolescents. Findings also highlight the importance of considering activity demands of public spaces in shade planning to optimize sun protection during outdoor activities in public spaces.
Ashleigh Haynes
Stay Socially Distant and Wash Your Hands: Using the Health Belief Model to Determine Intent for COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors at the Beginning of the Pandemic
2 months 3 weeks ago
Health Education & Behavior, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 424-433, August 2021.
BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has quickly spread around the world, and since currently no treatments that are safe and effective for large groups of people nor a vaccine are available, the best way to prevent the illness is to avoid being exposed to the virus causing it. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive effects of both demographic and psychosocial factors originating with the Health Belief Model on reported intent to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors (e.g., social distancing, hand washing, and not attending large gatherings).MethodA Qualtrics survey of 500 U.S. adults was conducted to explore the relationships of demographics and psychosocial factors with the intent to adhere to COVID-19 preventive measures.ResultsGender was a predictor of taking preventive action, with women more likely to take action. Health Belief Model constructs predicted uptake of most COVID-19 preventive actions, but the constructs often appeared to work independent of the model. Race/ethnicity was an infrequent predictor, but when it did, minorities were less likely to report intent to adhere to COVID-19 preventive behaviors.Conclusion/ImplicationsWhile not a perfect model for this pandemic, the Health Belief Model and its constructs should continue to be considered for use by public health communicators focusing on preventive measure campaign design in both the COVID-19 pandemic era and beyond.
Jeanine P. D. Guidry
Health Information on Waterpipe Lounge Menus to Educate Young Adults: Pilot Study Findings
3 months ago
Health Education & Behavior, Ahead of Print.
BackgroundFor years, tobacco risk communication has largely focused on cigarette smoking. New strategies must be developed to adapt to emerging tobacco products, such as waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS).AimsThe purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effects of health information on waterpipe lounge menus on the perceptions of harm and risk from WTS and inform future efficacy interventions for health communication (i.e., educating populations on the risks, harms, and health consequences of WTS).MethodParticipants aged 18 to 24 years (n = 213) who smoked waterpipe at least monthly were randomized to one of four waterpipe lounge menu groups using a two-by-two experimental design with “warning message” and “nicotine content” as factors.ResultsThose who viewed waterpipe lounge menus that included a warning message had greater perceived relative harm to health and perceived risk of decreased lung function from WTS. Those who viewed waterpipe lounge menus that included nicotine content had greater perceived risk of heart attack from WTS.DiscussionParticipants who were exposed to health warnings of WTS and information on the nicotine content of waterpipe tobacco increased on measures of perceived relative harm and risk of health consequences.ConclusionThe pilot test results indicate promise for providing health information on waterpipe lounge menus to educate young adults on the harms and risks of WTS.
Azieb W. Kidanu
Effects of March of Dimes Supportive Pregnancy Care on Social Support and Postpartum Depression
3 months 2 weeks ago
Health Education & Behavior, Volume 48, Issue 5, Page 670-679, October 2021.
PurposeGroup prenatal care, which integrates medical care with patient education and empowerment in a group setting, has the potential to build social support among pregnant women and reduce the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). Past research on group care’s effects on social support or PPD has produced inconsistent findings. Studies have tended to (1) examine direct effects on social support or PPD and (2) treat group care participation as a dichotomous variable. This study tests the hypothesis that group care has an indirect effect on PPD through its effect on social support. It uses both a dichotomous measure of group care participation and an ordinal measure of social contact with group members.MethodThis study used survey data from 199 women at two Tennessee health care sites who participated in traditional care (TC) or Supportive Pregnancy Care (SPC), a new group program developed by March of Dimes. Path analysis was employed, estimating standardized path coefficients with propensity score weighted multilevel modeling.ResultsThe study found no evidence of an indirect relationship between SPC and PPD symptoms when modeling the dichotomous measure. Modeling the ordinal measure revealed more favorable PPD outcomes among women reporting high group member contact (compared with TC) and adverse outcomes among women reporting low group member contact.ConclusionSPC may be useful for preventing PPD symptoms among women socially engaged with other group care patients. Given the adverse effect among women who do not engage with other group members, group facilitators should encourage women to interact outside of scheduled sessions.
Heather Hensman Kettrey
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2 hours 56 minutes ago
Table of Contents for Health Education & Behavior. List of articles from both the latest and ahead of print issues.
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